There were 153,791 households, out of which 44,762 (29.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 50,797 (33.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 24,122 (15.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 8,799 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. and organized drug gangs such as the "69 Mob", with increases in arrests, prosecutions, and imprisonment. [32] Horace Carpentier was elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year. Southern Pacific trains ended at the 16th Street Station. They include dive bars, dance clubs, modern lounges and jazz bars. In 2005 a sculpture called HERETHERE was installed by the City of Berkeley on the Berkeley-Oakland border at Martin Luther King Jr. Way. Subsequent battle for control over the lucrative narcotics trade incited gang conflicts and violence, with shootings becoming a regular occurrence. In 2020, the Oakland Panthers of the Indoor Football League will begin play. Valued at $100 million in 1943, Oakland's canning industry was its second-most-valuable war contribution after shipbuilding. [65], After his 1999 inauguration, Oakland Mayor Jerry Brown continued his predecessor Elihu Harris' public policy of supporting downtown housing development in the area defined as the Central Business District in Oakland's 1998 General Plan. All campuses now operate under the Sutter Health network. Of those, 159,771 (65.2%) are registered Democrats, 9,544 (3.9%) are registered Republicans, and 65,416 (26.7%) have declined to state a political party. Australian eucalyptus trees have been extensively planted in many areas, as they come from a similar climate. East Oakland, which includes the East Oakland Hills, encompasses more than half of Oakland's land area, stretching from Lakeshore Avenue on the east shore of Lake Merritt southeast to the San Leandro border. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. The National Weather Service today has two official weather stations in Oakland: Oakland International Airport and the Oakland Museum (established 1970). In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. [117] The number was higher for individual low-income communities, with 96% of Native American households in neighborhoods that either experienced gentrification or were at risk of being gentrified, followed by Latino households at 94%, Black households at 92%, and Asian or Pacific Islander households at 88%. Bobby Seale, co-founder of Black Panther Party, outlines the ten point program . Other Oakland public high schools include Castlemont High School, Fremont High School, and McClymonds High School, briefly known as Castlemont Community of Small Schools, Fremont Federation of High Schools, and McClymonds Educational Complex, respectively. [61], In 1980 Oakland's black population reached its 20th-century peak at approximately 47% of the overall city population.[62]. I had gotten arrested for Free Speech in 1964, and had seen for months how the “mainstream” press had attacked our non-violent Free Speech Movement (FSM). Northern Light School is a private nonprofit elementary and middle school. In 1908 lawyer, former miner and newspaper owner Homer Wood (1880–1976) suggested to his friend Frank Bilger of Blake and Bilger Rock Quarry and Paving Company that he organize a gathering to establish a Rotary Club east of the bay. Oakland expanded during the 1920s, as its population expanded with factory workers. [154] In 2013, Oakland ranked 4th among American cities as an urban destination for nature lovers.[155]. [57] In the postwar period, suburban development increased around Oakland, and wealthier residents moved to new housing. The 2010 United States Census[89] reported Oakland had a population of 390,724. The region's Fox O&O, KTVU 2, is based in (and licensed to) Oakland at Jack London Square along with co-owned independent station KICU-TV 36 (licensed to San Jose). The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, and other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The mayor appoints a city administrator, subject to the confirmation by the City Council, who is the city's chief administrative officer. A concurrent rise in rape, robbery, burglary, auto-theft and other crimes occurred as well. [204] According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2011 American Community Survey, Oakland came in 7th place out of the 100 largest cities in the nation by percentage of people that chose to commute by bike in 2011. Since the team remained in the Bay Area, they decided not to revert to the San Francisco Warriors name it had in its first stint with the city. [clarification needed] Other charter schools include the Oakland Military Institute, Oakland School for the Arts, Bay Area Technology School, East Bay Innovation Academy, and Oakland Charter Academy.[189]. [122], The Port of Oakland was an early innovator/pioneer in the technologies of Intermodal Containerized Shipping. Many AC Transit lines follow old routes of the Key System. He was a part of the Civil Rights movement in the Black Belt South in the 1960s. [211] It is headquartered at One Kaiser Plaza in Downtown Oakland and maintains a large medical center in the Piedmont Avenue neighborhood. The average household size was 2.49. Black Panther Party, African American revolutionary party, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. [195] Western Pacific trains ended at the 3rd and Washington station. Bentley School is an Independent Co-educational K–12, college preparatory school on two campuses in Oakland and Lafayette, California. "WWII meant opportunity for many women, oppression for others", UNITED STATES, v. NATIONAL CITY LINES, Inc., et al.—186 F.2d 562—AltLaw, "From Horses to Hybrid: A Century of East Bay Transport", "Jerry Brown's No-Nonsense New Age for Oakland", "Oakland Museum of CA celebrates 50th anniversary of Black Panthers", "Bay Area Census – City of Oakland – 1970–1990 Census data", "Some faults revealed by firestorm remain uncorrected", "On the road to economic success, where we work", "Inflating the Numbers, The Brown administration came very close on the 10K Plan. Racial Makeup of Oakland excluding Hispanics from racial categories (2018)[92], According to 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, Oakland's population rose to 429,114, and was 35.1% White (29.0% Non-Hispanic White and 6.1% Hispanic White), 23.2% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American and Alaskan Native, 15.3% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 17.8% Some Other Race, and 7.0% from two or more races. [162][163] Oakland has the second highest percentage of registered Democrats of any of the incorporated cities in Alameda County, with Berkeley coming in first. [47] The first transcontinental airmail flight finished its journey at Durant Field on August 9, 1920, flown by Army Capt. Before being logged in the 19th century, some of the tallest redwood trees in California (used for navigation by ships entering the Golden Gate) may have stood in the Oakland Hills. [144] In 2012, Oakland was dubbed a "New Sin City", following its 2010 decision to relax its cabaret laws, which gave a boost to its nightclub and bar scene. According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Oakland has 245,111 registered voters. The homicide rate is not the same as murder rate. The United States Census Bureau says the city's total area is 78.0 square miles (202 km2), including 55.8 square miles (145 km2) of land and 22.2 square miles (57 km2) (28.48 percent) of water. The Black Lives Matter and related protests for social justice in Oakland, San Francisco, and Marin continue a long tradition of Bay Area protest. Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake until US$80M seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was complete in 1995. [174] There were 723 officers at the end of 2015. The race riots of the 1960s led President Johnson to establish a National [174] Crime trends generally tracked comparison cities of Fresno, Richmond, Sacramento, and Stockton "in terms of direction if not magnitude"; this suggested that crime trends are regional rather than city-specific. The old freeway segment had passed through the middle of West Oakland, forming a barrier between West Oakland neighborhoods. [96] In 2012, the median income for a household in the city was US$51,863 and the median income for a family was US$59,459. The district originated in 1958 after the conspiratorial dissolution of the Key System of streetcars. The mayor is elected at-large for a four-year term. [92], The greater Oakland area[specify] has the fifth largest cluster of "elite zip codes" ranked by the number of households with the highest combination of income and education. [186], OUSD test scores historically lag behind the rest of California, in particular due to a high proportion of English-language learners. During that time, the record high temperature was 104 Â°F (40 Â°C) on June 24, 1957, and the record low temperature was 24 Â°F (−4 Â°C) on January 23, 1949. Oakland was the center of a general strike during the first week of December 1946, one of six cities across the country that had such a strike after World War II. State Route 13 begins as the Warren Freeway at I-580, and runs through a scenic valley in the Montclair District before entering Berkeley. [187] Some individual schools have much better performance than the citywide average. [181][182][183][184], The Oakland Unified School District (OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield Village, operates most of Oakland's public schools. The creation of the plan was to promote alternatives to the private automobile. [185] As of 2015[update], the Oakland Unified School District includes 86 division-run schools and 32 charter schools; the district also manages several adult education programs. AC Transit provides 24-hour service to the airport, and BART's Coliseum–Oakland International Airport automated guideway transit line provides frequent service between the airport and Oakland Coliseum station. [54], Intercity bus companies that serve Oakland include Greyhound, BoltBus, Megabus, USAsia, and Hoang Transportation.[199]. [139] Oakland has also increased its travel destination allure internationally. The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone (a Miwok word meaning "western people"). West Oakland is the area between downtown and the Bay, partially surrounded by the Oakland Point, and encompassing the Port of Oakland. [121] These jobs range from minimum wage hourly positions to Transportation Storage and Distribution Managers who earn an annual average salary of US$91,520. On February 1, 1960, four college students in Greensboro, North Carolina challenged Woolworth's policy against allowing African Americans to eat at the lunch counter with a sit-in. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, and the 45th most populated city in the United States. 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